By T. M. Flynn, C. N. Smith (auth.), K. D. Timmerhaus (eds.)
1971 marked the 1st 12 months in view that 1956 that the once a year Cryogenic Engineering convention used to be now not held. in its place, the Cryogenic Engineering convention gave its complete aid to the XIII overseas Congress of Refrigeration by way of operating with Commissions I and II of the foreign Institute of Refrigeration to arrange the cryogenic periods for those commissions. the entire papers offered on the overseas Congress of Refrigeration could be released by way of the IIR as a part of the court cases of that assembly. although no Cryogenic Engineering convention used to be held in 1971, it grew to become particularly obtrusive to the convention Board that there have been adequate advances in cryogenic engineering to warrant the ebook of quantity 17 of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. quantity 17 offers the advances during this vital box through bringing jointly in a single quantity many of the major papers which have been awarded at a number of technical conferences around the nation throughout the latter half 1970 and the 1st a part of 1971. moreover, a number of authoritative evaluation papers were ready via invitation of the Cryogenic Engineering convention Board.
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VALVE ® LIQUID ril, ENTROPY, Fig.!. Schematic of the Linde-Hampson system. S Fig. 2. The Linde-Hampson cycle. Numbered points refer to points in Fig.!. ratio of the actual heat exchange to the maximum possible heat exchange, or c = h'l - hg hI - hg (3) c--~--:-"'- Substituting for h'l from (3) into (2) results in the following expression for the liquid yield: Y= (hI - h2 ) - (1 - c)(h l (hI - hf) - (1 - c)(h l - hg ) hg ) --:---~~~~-~-=-----:-''- - (2a) The liquid yield depends upon the heat exchanger effectiveness, which is determined by the heat transfer surface area, mass flow rate, and overall heat transfer coefficient.
3, Project Nos. A-764 and E-IIS (Apr. 29, 1966). 0 Thermodynamic Property Tables Helium 16a. D. B. 5 and 100 Atmospheres, NBS Tech. Note IS4 (Jan. 1962). 16b. D. B. Mann, The Thermodynamic Properties of Helium from 6 to 540 0 R Between 10 and 1500 psia, NBS Tech. Note IS4A (Jan. 1962). 17. D. B. Mann, in: Technology of Liquid Helium, NBS Monograph III (Oct. 1968), p. 33. 18. R. D. McCarty, Provisional Functionsfor Helium-4 for Temperaturesfrom 2 to 1500 K With Pressures to 100 MN/m2, NBS Report (in press), (1970).
The cycle is shown on the temperature-entropy plane in Fig. 14. In some Claude liquefaction systems, the expander is coupled to one stage of the compressor, so that the expander work output is used to assist in the compression on the working fluid. In most small-scale systems, however, the expander work is 29 Liquefaction Cycles for Cryogens ® VALVE ® LIQUID Fig. 13. Schematic of the Claude system. removed from the system by dissipating the energy in an external brake or blower. Whether the expander work is utilized or wasted does not affect the liquid yield; however, the utilization of the expander work does influence the work per unit mass liquefied.