By Eric J. Toone
This publication covers important advances in enzymology, explaining the habit of enzymes and the way they are often applied to boost novel medicinal drugs, synthesize recognized and novel compounds, and comprehend evolutionary techniques.
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Additional resources for Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology (Volume 77)
Furthermore, “transport” by RND transporters may not change the transmembrane location of the substrates since the major pathway of substrate capture is from the periplasm. Another possibility may be that the periplasmic adaptor protein, which seems to be necessary to activate the transporter (see below), becomes stripped off during the preparation of the membranes. The first successful functional reconstitution of an RND pump was achieved by Zgurskaya and Nikaido (67) in 1999. Cells containing acrAB genes on a high-copy-number pUC plasmid were grown without induction, and the membrane proteins were solubilized with 5% Triton X-100 overnight in the cold.
Aeruginosa MexD that acquired the ability to extrude carbenicillin, which is not handled by the wild-type MexD, were isolated (81). All mutants mapped to the periplasmic domain, none to the transmembrane domain, further supporting the conclusion mentioned above. Among the residues identified, Phe608 (corresponding to Phe610 of AcrB) is a part of the substratebinding pocket more recently identified (see below). B) as a potential site of periplasmic entry for substrates. These residues are shown as space-filling models in the AcrB structure (Figure 6).
This large conformational alteration is initiated apparently by the protonation of one or both of the Asp residues (Asp407 and Asp408) in the midst of the transmembrane domain, which leads to a significant elongation of TM helix 8 into the periplasmic domain and all the subsequent conformational changes in the periplasmic domain. Recently, the reactivity of the carboxyl groups in AcrB was assessed by labeling with a hydrophobic reagent, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, followed by CNBr cleavage of the protein and analysis of the fragments by mass spectrometry (106).