Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation by J. Bruce Amstutz

By J. Bruce Amstutz

While Soviet army forces invaded Afghanistan in overdue 1979, the invasion was once, without delay, an try and retailer a tottering Marxist executive and a caution to either East and West that the Brezhnev Doctrine of "necessary intervention" will be enforced.

Dr. J. Bruce Amstutz, U. S. cost d’affaires in Kabul from 1977 to 1980, starts off his therapy of the 1st 5 years of Soviet profession with an old review of years of Russian meddling in Afghan affairs. He follows this account with a first-hand document of the 1979 invasion, then analyzes that intervention from political, army, and fiscal views. one of the very important matters Dr. Amstutz discusses are the varied Afghan political factions - pro-Soviet and resistance - their leaders, the human rights and refugee difficulties, diplomatic efforts to settle the clash, and Soviet measures to repress and indoctrinate the Afghans.

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Which led lo the leflist coup, produced no non governmental political counierreaclion. 56 They used this freedom io recruit vigorously military officers, teachers, police, civil servants, and students. 58 At Kabul University in the 1960s and 1970s, though communists were a minority among the students, leftist followers of various stripes and Marxist influence nonetheless were significant. An Afghan university student of Turkoman ethnic origin recalled that of the 10 ethnic Turkoman students at the university in April 1978 eight were Marxists of one stripe or another.

An Afghan university student of Turkoman ethnic origin recalled that of the 10 ethnic Turkoman students at the university in April 1978 eight were Marxists of one stripe or another. M When Daoud seized power in 1973 he acknowledged his debt to the supporting Parcham faction by appointing some Parcham members to his Revolutionary Council and others to his Cabinet as Ministers. 62 By the end of 1973, however, in an effort to reduce communist influence in the government, Daoud removed many of his leftist appointees; this decision triggered a PDPA decision to remove him.

U 28 Afghanistan In fact, Soviet objectives involved more than these two aims. And whether by the 1970s they included strengthening Afghan independence is arguable. The historical record suggests the Soviets had in fact four main objectives, as outlined below. • One of these objectives was to ensure that Afghanistan did not become an unfriendly border state with close American ties, as was the case with Iran and Turkey. Khrushchev in his memoirs states: At the time of our visit there [19551, it was clear to us that the Americans were penetrating Afghanistan with the obvious purpose of setting up a military base....

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