Allozyme Electrophoresis. A Handbook for Animal Systematics by B. J. Richardson

By B. J. Richardson

Inherited enzyme adaptations, studied utilizing electrophoresis, can be utilized as markers for the identity of people, inhabitants constitution research, the delineation of species barriers and phytogenetic reconstruction. the aim of this e-book is to explain, in one handy instruction manual, the entire theoretical and functional issues proper to these meaning to use electrophoresis as a device for answering such questions.

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Usually however clear morphological differences emerge once the specimens have been sorted into the two groups char­ acterized electrophoretically. Where at least one of these predictions is not fulfilled, the possibility should be considered that the original 'fixed' dif­ ference observed is not under simple genetic control, or that the gels have been misinterpreted. For this reason, it is important that a minimum of two diagnostic fixed differences be used in all circumstances. , for suspecting the presence of two species in the population.

Multiple fixed gene differences, however, would normally indicate that more than one species was present (see below under allopatric populations). 2) For a haploid species, or for a species sampled in the haploid phase of the life cycle, the presence in a single sample of two types of individuals with phenotypes Ai and A2 but with no A1A2 individuals is of course not necessarily indicative of sibling species, since haploids cannot be heter­ ozygous. However, two loci showing congruent fixed differences, where individuals are either A1B1 or A2B2, but never A1B2 or A2B1, can be taken as indicating the presence of two species (except where the forms are parthenogenic).

These individuals are not independent but interact in various ways with the environment and with one another. Most importantly, interactions between individuals produce the next gener­ ation, which is, as a result, the product of historical events occurring before as well as after its initiation. Some of these events affect the genetic structure of the population, and such facts can be used to develop or test ideas about the structure of a population, notably the relationship between groups of animals in different parts of the range of the species.

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