American Herbal Pharmacopoeia : botanical by Roy Upton; et al

By Roy Upton; et al

Content material: creation to Botanical Microscopy Pharmacognosy: From Dioscorides to trendy natural drugs what is in a reputation? Nomenclature of Botanical fabrics To Be or to not Be? a spotlight on Botanical Adulteration Microscopy for id of Botanical uncooked fabrics: makes use of and barriers developing a Microscopy Lab significant Plant teams constructions of the first Plant physique and easy Plant Anatomy Diagnostic features of Tissues association of Tissues in Medicinal Plant elements training of Samples for Microscopic research Botanical Microscopy Atlas Achillea millefolium L. Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., Aconitum kusnezoffi Reicher Actaea racemosa L. syn. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt Aesculus hippocastanum L. Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz Aletris farinosa L. Allium sativum L. Angelica archangelica L. Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Arctium lappa L. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng Aristolochia fangchi Y. C. Wu ex L. D. Chou & S. M. Hwang Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom Arnica montana L. Astragalus mongholicus Bunge syn. A. membranaceus Bunge, A. membranaceus Bunge var. mongholicus(Bunge) P. ok. Hsiao Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz Atropa belladonna L. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell syn. Bacopa monnieria (L.) Wettstein Bupleurum spp Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx Centella asiatica (L.) Urb Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.)Rich. and Cephaelis acuminata Karsten Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. grey Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton Cinchona succirubra Pav. ex Klotzsch (syn. C. pubescens Vahl) Clematis armandii Franch Clematis chinensis Retz Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., Codonopsis tangshen Oliv Cola nitida (Vent.) A. Chev Coptis chinensis Franch., Coptis deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao, Coptis teeta Wall Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC Hawthorn Fruit Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC Hawthorn Leaf and Flower Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Hawthorn Fruit Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Hawthorn Leaf and Flower Curcuma longa L. Datura stramonium L. Digitalis lanata Ehrh Digitalis purpurea L. Echinacea angustifolia DC Echinacea atrorubens Nutt Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Aerial components Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Root and Rhizome Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Seed Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim Ephedra sinica Stapf, Ephedra equisetina Bunge, E. intermedia Epimedium spp Equisetum arvense L. Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt syn. E. purpureum L. Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Frangula alnus Mill. syn. Rhamnus frangulaL. Frangula purshiana (DC.) J. G. Cooper syn. Rhamnus purshianaDC Ganoderma lucidum P. Karst Ginkgo biloba L. Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC., Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Grifola frondosa (Dicks: Fr.) S.F. grey Hamamelis virginiana L. Hedysarum polybotris Hand.-Mazz Humulus lupulus L. Hydrastis canadensis L. Leaf Hydrastis canadensis L. Rhizome and Root Hypericum perforatum L. Illicium anisatum L. Illicium verum J. D. Hook Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Moc. ex DC.) Coville Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Singer syn. Lentinus edodes (Berk) Singer Levisticum officinale W. Koch Ligusticum porteri J. M. Coult.& Rose Ligustrum lucidum W. T. Aiton Lycium chinense Mill.,L. barbarum L. Mahonia nervosa (Pursh.) Nutt Matricaria recutita L. Melissa officinalis L. Mentha A - piperitaL. Mentha pulegium L. Mitchella repens L. Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq Panax ginsengC. A. Mey. Root (unprocessed) Panax ginsengC. A. Mey. Root (processed) Panax pseudo ginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. Chow & W. G. Huang Panax quinquefolius L. Parthenium integrifolium L. Passiflora incarnata L. Paullinia cupana Kunth Pausinystalia johimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille Periploca sepium Bunge Petasites frigidus (L.) Frigs Phyllanthus emblica L Piper methysticum G.Forst Plantago lanceolata L. Plantago significant L. Polygonum multiflorum Thunb Prunus africanum (Hook f.) Kalkman (syn. Pygeum africanum Hook. f.) Prunus serotina Ehrh Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth . ex Kurz Rheum spp. (Rheum officinale Baillon, Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.) Rhodiola rosea L. Rumex crispus L. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. Root syn. Aucklandia costus Falc.; Aucklandia lappa Decne.; Saussurea lappa Decne. C. B. Clarke Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill Schisandra sphenanthera Rehder & E. H. Wilson Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Scutellaria lateriflora L. Senna alexandrina Mill. (syn. Cassia senna, C. angustifolia, C. acutifolia) Senna alexandrina Mill Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small Serratula spp Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn Stephania tetrandra S. Moore Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni Symphytum officinale L. Leaf Symphytum officinale L. Root Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. Leaf Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. Root Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb Terminalia chebula Retz Teucrium chamaedrys L. Trifolium pratense L. Tussilago farfara L. Ulmus rubra Muhl Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC Urtica dioica L. Aerial elements Urtica dioica L. Rhizome and Root Urtica urens L. Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton Vaccinium myrtillus L. Valeriana officinalis L. Viburnum opulus L. Viburnum prunifolium L. Vitex agnus-castus L. Withania somnifera L. Dunal Zingiber officinale Roscoe word list of Botanical Microscopy Terminology References and Bibliography Index

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Like the early materia medica, pharmacognosy additionally encompassed many aspects of the medicinal plant trade, including a detailed accounting of the supply chain of plant drugs and, in some cases, rudimentary color reaction tests, some of which have utility today. Early works on pharmacognosy also included an accounting of the therapeutic uses and actions, or pharmacodynamics, of plant drugs (Shellard 1983) along with an increasing emphasis on chemistry. 8 Microscopic examination of poppy (Papaver somniferum).

The alkaloid berberine is widely known for its local antibacterial activity. Relatively recently, Stermitz, Lorenz, et al. (2000) and Stermitz, Tawara-Matsuda, et al. (2000) (reported by Kinghorn 2001) found that the antibacterial activity of berberine derived from the traditionally used Native American botanical Berberis fremontii against resistant Staphylococcus aureus was potentiated by the presence of two other constituents contained within the plant: the flavonolignin 5ʹ-methoxyhydnocarpin and the porphyrin pheophorbide a (Figure 5).

25 References and Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . indb 3 10/28/10 5:11:12 PM 4 American Herbal Pharmacopoeia: Botanical Pharmacognosy — Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines [Pharmacognosy] has been employed throughout the course of man’s life on earth—by primitive hunters and warriors who selected specific plants for preparing spear and arrow poisons; by priest-physicians and herbalists who learned by trial and error that some plants produced and others dispelled the symptoms of disease; by apothecaries and chemists who prepared more potent and stable products from crude materials.

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