An Introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Solid by I. M. Ward

By I. M. Ward

Offers a complete creation to the mechanical behaviour of strong polymers. greatly revised and up to date all through, the second one version now comprises new fabric on mechanical relaxations and anisotropy, composites modelling, non-linear viscoelasticity, yield behaviour and fracture of difficult polymers.

The obtainable procedure of the booklet has been retained with every one bankruptcy designed to be self contained and the idea and purposes of the topic conscientiously brought the place applicable. the most recent advancements within the box are integrated along labored examples, mathematical appendices and an in depth reference.

  • Fully revised and up-to-date all through to incorporate all of the most up-to-date advancements within the field
  • Worked examples on the finish of the chapter
  • An worthy source for college kids of fabrics technological know-how, chemistry, physics or engineering learning polymer science

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2. Love, A. E. , A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity (4th edn), Macmillan, New York, 1944. 3. Ward, I. , Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers (2nd edn), Wiley, Chichester, 1983. Further reading Solecki, R. and Conant, R. , Advanced Mechanics of Materials, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003. 1 General features of rubber-like behaviour The most noticeable feature of natural rubber and other elastomers is the ability to undergo large and reversible elastic deformation. It is not unexpected that stress can cause polymeric molecules to adopt an extended configuration, but at first sight it may seem surprising that on removal of the stress the molecules retract, on average, to their initial coiled form.

As a consequence of this definition inward-acting stresses, such as hydrostatic pressure above that of the surrounding atmosphere, are defined as negative quantities. It is, however, customary when considering yield behaviour to envisage that hydrostatic pressure causes an increase in the yield stress. For this reason the hydrostatic pressure p in Chapters 10 and 11 is defined as p ¼ À(óxx + óyy + ózz ). 1) whose edges are parallel with coordinate axes x, y and z. In equilibrium the forces per unit area acting on the cube faces are P1 on the yz plane and P2 on the zx plane and P3 on the xy plane.

The entropy of the chain is thus given by s ¼ c À kb2 r 2 ¼ c À kb2 (x 2 þ y 2 þ z 2 ) (3:21) where c is an arbitrary constant. 4 The elasticity of a molecular network We wish to calculate the strain-energy function for a molecular network, assuming that this is given by the change in entropy of a network of chains as a function of strain. The actual network is replaced by an ideal network in which each segment of a molecule between successive points of cross-linkage is considered to be a Gaussian chain.

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