Applications of polymers in drug delivery by Ambikanandan Misra, Aliasgar Shahiwala

By Ambikanandan Misra, Aliasgar Shahiwala

Use of polymers has develop into necessary within the box of drug supply. Polymers play an important position in modulating drug supply to take advantage of greatest healing merits and feature been primary within the profitable improvement of a number of novel drug supply structures which are now available.

This ebook offers info of the purposes of polymeric drug supply structures that may be of curiosity to researchers in industries and academia. It describes the improvement of polymeric structures starting from the traditional dosage kinds as much as the latest shrewdpermanent structures. The regulatory and highbrow estate features in addition to the scientific applicability of polymeric drug supply structures also are discussed.

Each diverse drug supply course is mentioned in a separate bankruptcy of the publication. All significant routes of drug supply were lined to supply the reader with a breathtaking in addition to an in-depth view of the advancements in polymer-based drug supply structures. Appendices are incorporated which include worthwhile pharmaceutical homes of the polymers and critical polymeric purposes for numerous drug supply routes.

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The gels like Atridox® are injected or applied at 8 Polymers in Drug Delivery Systems specific local sites and offer therapeutic properties for local repair of damaged tissue such as cartilage, bone and chronic wounds. The unique ability of these responsive systems to gel at body temperatures offers the benefits of better stability and long lasting effects at the desired site. 2. 2 Mechanism and applications of environmentally controlled systems Polymer formulation type Example Mechanism Applications Thermoresponsive Poly(N-isopoprylacrylamide) Temperature change (PNIPAAm) leads to change in swelling of polymer to release the drug Drug delivery, gene delivery, tissue engineering pH responsive (acidic or basic) Polyacrylic acid or chitosan Drug delivery, tissue engineering Changes swelling of polymer Hydrogel containing Glucose sensitive insulin immobilised enzymes release poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-N,Ndimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) hydrogel Enzymic degradation Pulsatile stimulates change in drug delivery, swelling of polymer to agriculture release the drug Magnetic responsive hydrogels Application of magnetic field leads to change in swelling effecting drug release Drug delivery, imaging, agriculture Chemical crosslinked Pluronics hydrogels Swelling - deswelling response Pulsed drug delivery, biotechnology Ionomeric pumps Polyelectrolyte Electrophoresis of charged drug leads to changes in swelling and causes drug release Drug delivery, fracture toughness Ultrasound responsive gels Ethylene vinyl alcohol Applied ultrasound increases temperature to aid drug release Transdermal delivery, diagnostic ultrasound imaging PVA and alginate dispersed magnetic microspheres 9 Applications of Polymers in Drug Delivery The stimuli responsive drug delivery is achieved by using polymers with special characteristics, called ‘smart’ polymers [19].

1 Thermo-responsive Polymers These smart polymers are sensitive to temperature and change their microstructural features in response to change in environment temperature. Thermo-responsive polymers present in their structure a very sensitive balance between the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic groups and a small change in the temperature can create new adjustments [22]. An important feature of thermo-responsive polymers is the critical solution 11 Applications of Polymers in Drug Delivery temperature.

1 Hydrophilic Polymers These are water-soluble polymers. Matrices developed with these polymers swell in aqueous media followed by dissolution of the matrix. , PAA and CMC, have been extensively used for designing mucoadhesive delivery systems due to their ability to exhibit strong hydrogen bonding with the mucin present in the mucosal layer [67]. Chitosan is an excellent cationic polyelectrolyte, and has been extensively used for developing mucoadhesive polymer because of its good biocompatibility and biodegradable properties [68].

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