By Otfried Höffe
This can be an English translation of Otfried Hoffe's examine, initially in German, featuring the existence and works of Aristotle, revealing him as a contemporary, forward-thinking thinker. matters of ethics, politics, metaphysics, psychology, biology and rhetoric are all mentioned and Aristotle is additionally in comparison to various different philosophers, in particular these of German foundation. Hoffe has been a number one contributor to debates on ethical, felony, political and philosophical topics for nearly thirty years.
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Additional resources for Aristotle
I 10, 30b32–40). Syllogistic, relative necessity (toutôn ontôn anankaion: APr. ” Modal, unlimited, or absolute necessity (haplôs anankaion: APr. ” Along with assertoric logic, Aristotle also treats (syllogistic) modal logic, or modal syllogistics, again in great detail (APr. I 8–27; on the question of contingent propositions regarding the future, see Int. 9). He cites no fewer than 111, or rather 148, of its 256 valid syllogisms (cf. ). Among other things, he points out that apodictic propositions cannot be inferred from apodictic propositions alone, but only from their combination with assertoric ones.
While book I of the Topics expounds the relevant basic concepts—the task, the procedure, the use, and the tools (prothesis, methodos, chrêsimon, organa)—and book VIII gives practical advice, the main part of the Topics, books II–VII, consist in a catalogue or reference work of the schemes of argumentation that allow the defendant to plan his defense and the opponent his attack. The Rhetoric (not only at II 23–25) supplements this collection by topoi for real and apparent enthymemes (see ch. 4. 3) and for refutations.
The systemic idea was finally refuted by the interpretation based on historical development that originated in two monographs (1912 and 19552) by the philologist Werner Jaeger. Inspired by nineteenth-century historicism, Jaeger sees in Aristotle’s œuvre the result of his intellectual development, in which three phases can be clearly distinguished: years of study (Lehrjahre), years of travel (Wanderjahre), and a period of mastery (Meisterschaft). ” In the time he spends away from Athens, the Wanderjahre, he progressively turned away from this position, and finally, in the Meisterzeit after his return to Athens, he pursued phenomenologically and empirically orientated research stripped of all speculation.