By John D. Hepworth, Mike J. Waring, David R. Waring, Martyn Berry, E.W. Abel, A.G. Davies, David Phillips, J.Derek Woollins, Colin Drayton
This sequence of books involves brief, single-topic or modular texts, focusing on the elemental parts of chemistry taught in undergraduate technological know-how classes. every one booklet presents a concise account of the fundamental ideas underlying a given topic, embodying an independentlearning philosophy and together with labored examples. the only subject, one publication method guarantees that the sequence is adaptable to chemistry classes throughout a number of associations.
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Extra resources for Aromatic Chemistry
The simplest such compound is diphenylmethane (12), which can be synthesized in a number of ways using Friedel-Crafts methodology. The reaction of an excess of benzene with dichloromethane in the presence of aluminium chloride results in the displacement of both halogen atoms. 10). 10 Reactions of diphenylmethane are similar to those of biphenyl, since the benzyl group, C6 H: CH,, is also ortholparu directing, although bromination results in reaction at the methylene group. 1 Introduction Phenol (hydroxybenzene, 1) has a hydroxyl group attached directly to the benzene ring.
18 and displaces the halide ion in an intramolecular process. The initial product is a highly reactive species called an aryne. It is rapidly attacked by NH, , or its protonated derivative NH,, now acting as a nucleophile. 19). 6 ips0 Substitution Electrophilic attack can also occur at a position already occupied by a substituent, the @so position. Such ips0 substitutions are not common, but they are industrially useful. 20). A proton can also displace the sulfonic acid group, with benzenesulfonic acid being converted into benzene.
3 In the case of acyl chlorides, reaction with the Lewis acid generates . 4). Again, it is questionable whether a free cation is formed or if a complex between the acyl group and AlCl, is the attacking species. 5). Although symmetrical by-products are also formed, it is possible to introduce long unbranched side-chains by this route without isomerization occurring. 1 Reactions of the Ring An alkyl group activates the ring to electrophilic substitution mainly through an inductive effect and directs attack to the 2- and 4-positions.