Atmospheric Re-Entry Vehicle Mechanics by Patrick Gallais

By Patrick Gallais

Based on an extended engineering adventure, this publication bargains a entire and cutting-edge research of aerodynamic and flight mechanic access subject matters. This up to date variation had new chapters on Re-entry on Mars venture, flight caliber, rarefied aerodynamics and re-entry accuracy. additionally, it offers a wide set of program routines and solutions.

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Mars atmosphere density (from EMCD) –1 LOG10(ro) (kg/m**3) –2 –3 –4 clear –5 Viking dust –6 –7 –8 –9 0 20 40 60 80 Altitude (km) Fig. 4 Martian Models 29 Mars atmosphere density, exponential fitting –1 LOG10(ro) (kg/m**3) –2 –3 –4 25 to 125 km –5 0 to 25 km –6 –7 –8 –9 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Altitude (km) Fig. 295 There are several models used for the prediction of the Martian atmosphere. Explorations from NASA, including the Lander “Mars Pathfinder” (1997) successfully used the Mars GRAM [GRA] model.

The GRAM model from NASA is now supplanting it. The US standard was updated on several occasions, and we will describe the US66 version. This version [USS] includes 14 average atmospheres corresponding to points located in the 15◦ –75◦ range of northern latitudes, for various seasons (spring/fall, summer, and winter) and for altitudes lower than 120 km. The atmosphere n◦ 6 that corresponds to 45◦ latitude, spring/fall, is very close to the US62 atmosphere. The model uses a geopotential altitude “h,” which is defined as, Z gref · h = g(z)dz 0 where g(z) represents an approximate value of the normal gravity field at the latitude considered and at geometrical altitude z: g(z) ≈ g(0) · R2t (Rt + z)2 In these expressions, Rt and g(0) are functions of the latitude and indicate the terrestrial radius and the apparent field of gravity at the mean sea level, gref indicates a constant reference value of the normal gravity field.

01 (Depending on mesh) ◦ –35◦ (Depending on geometry, Mach number, and on the method used to solve subsonic flow at stagnation point) Not applicable in the case of a separated flow - “Exact” methods have been developed to solve Navier–Stokes equations or “parabolized” Navier–Stokes equations (case of steady state flows, in supersonic zone)[AND] . The laminar flow solution is theoretically well formulated; however, the turbulent flow solution is less satisfactory and relies on models based on experimental results.

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