By Nikolai N. Korpan (auth.), Nikolai N. Korpan MD, PhD (eds.)
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The advantages of this method over traditional techniques are based on experimental and clinical experience. They are absence of tumor resistance to cryosurgical application, limited area of exposure, and monitoring of injurious effects of low temperatures on biological structures, presence of hemostatic and anesthetic effects, favorable course of a wound process following tissue cryolysis, and almost complete absence of general negative reactions of the organism. The practical value of the cryosurgical method is determined also by the possibility of treating neoplasms resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, to use it as a sparing treatment in elderly patients with concomitant diseases, and when tumors are located in surgically non-accessible areas.
Two cryosurgeons, working together and blinded to the actual temperature, used sonographic observations to estimate the temperature until they believed that the gland was adequately frozen. The operators were not able to accurately predict subzero temperatures by trans rectal ultrasonography evaluation. Moreover, the bias and magnitude of the error were significant and might lead to inadequate freezing of the prostate during attempted cryoablation (33). Intraoperative ultrasound guidance still remains the main method of control of the cryoprobe position and of ice ball formation during prostate or liver cryosurgery.
6), and the vascular permeability of the frozen normal skin was approximately 17 times that of the normal untreated skin 2 hr after cryosurgery (Fig. 6). VII. Low recurrence rate and increased survival in an animal experiment with B16 melanoma treated by cryochemotherapy: B16 melanoma was inoculated to BOF1 mice, and when the tumor grew to 10 mm in diameter, the size not completely destroyed by cryosurgery, the tumor was frozen at -196°C for 40 sec in each of 2 cycles. OTIC, 300 mg/kg was administered intra peritoneally immediately after cryosurgery, and the recurrence rate was recorded.