By H. Wyman Dorough, Sue K. Ballard (auth.), Fumio Matsumura, C. R. Krishna Murti (eds.)
When first built, chlorinated insecticides akin to DDT, dieldrin, and mirex have been acquired with open fingers, speedy turning into renowned as potent, fiscal brokers opposed to pests. yet proof started to mount that residues of those chemical compounds remained within the atmosphere, now not breaking down, frequently showing in vegetation and animals. via the overdue seventies many insecticides had completed a negative notoriety and have been therefore banned in a few international locations. Of super quandary, then, is the endurance of insecticides within the atmosphere. the foremost thrust of study and improvement within the zone of insecticides has effectively been the construction of gear which are either powerful and degradable. but as a way to effectively advertise using biodegradable insecticides, one needs to absolutely comprehend the mechanism of decay, and it really is to this important topic that we handle ourselves within the current quantity. in line with the Biodegradation activity strength, safeguard of chemical substances Com mittee, Brussels (1978), biodegradation could be outlined because the molecular degradation of an natural substance because of the complicated motion of dwelling organisms. A substance is related to be biodegraded to an environmentally applicable quantity whilst environmentally bad homes are misplaced. lack of a few attribute functionality or estate of substance by way of biodegradation will be known as organic transformation.
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Extra info for Biodegradation of Pesticides
N-Dealkylation may either detoxify or activate a pesticide. Generally, Ndealkylation of herbicides is a detoxication mechanism in contrast to some insecticides. Successive N-demethylation of monuron is a detoxication mechanism (C. R. Swanson and H. R. Swanson, 1968). Mono-N-dealkylation of atrazine is only a partial detoxication mechanism (Fig. 9) (Shimabukuro, 1967). Sandoz 6706®, a substituted phenyl pyridazinone herbicide, was successively demethylated by susceptible com and soybeans to the more phytotoxic Sandoz 9789® (norflurazon) and to the nonphytotoxic demethylated metabolite (Fig.
The organophosphorous insecticides, unlike the N-methyl and N,N-dimethylcarbamates, are readily cleaved in plants to form metabolites suggestive of hydrolytic reactions (Bull, 1972; Cas ida and Lykken, 1969). The alkyl phosphate and acid anhydride bonds of organophosphates are known to be cleaved in animals and insects by phosphotriesterases, NADPH-dependent mfo systems, and soluble glutathione S-transferases (Appleton and Nakatsugawa, 1977; Bull, 1972; Eto, 1974). It appears that cleavage by oxidative and glutathione conjugation mechanisms may be more significant than by a hydrolytic mechanism.
1979a, Metabolism of insecticides by conjugation mechanisms, Pharmacol. Ther. 4:433. Dorough, H. , 1979b, Conjugation reactions of pesticides and their metabolites with sugars, in: Advances in Pesticide Science, Part 3 (H. ), pp. 526-536, Pergamon Press, New York. Duggan, D. , Baldwin, J. , Arison, B. , and Rhodes, R. , 1974, N-glucoside formation as a detoxification mechanism in mammals, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 190:563. , 1974, Rapid formation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamine by interaction of nitrite with fungicides derived from dithiocarbamic acid in vitro under simulated gastric conditions and in vivo in the rat stomach, Food Cosmet.