By David G. Nicholls
This re-creation has been considerably rewritten and up to date, and contains color plates and cartoons to help knowing. The booklet includes a accomplished record of the main appropriate studies on every one sector of bioenergetics and, moreover, the method of bioenergetic experimentation is mentioned intimately
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Extra resources for Bioenergetics 2
The experimentally observed potential relative to the hydrogen electrode is termed the standard redox potential, E°. g. the oxidized and reduced states of a cytochrome) equilibrate with the Pt electrode sufficiently rapidly for a stable potential to be registered. g. the cytochrome) and the platinum electrode, is added to act as a redox mediator. As will be shown below, the primary redox couple and the redox mediator achieve equilibrium when they exhibit the same redox potential. As long as the concentration relationships of the primary couple are not disturbed, the electrode can therefore register the potential of the primary couple.
Thus Eq. 17] and (note that these add together to give Eq. 15). A reduced-oxidized pair such as NADH/NAD+ is termed a redox couple. 2 Determination of redox potentials Each of the half-reactions above is reversible, and so can in theory be described by an equilibrium constant. However, it is not immediately apparent how to treat the electrons, which have no independent existence in solution. e. e. the oxidized form). In this case the tendency of the couple to donate electrons is quantified by forming an electrical cell from two half-cells, each consisting of a metal electrode in equilibrium with a 1 M solution of its salt.
Both (a) nigericin (N) and (b) ionomycin (I) are hydrophobic weak carboxylic acids permeable across lipid bilayer regions as either the protonated acid or the neutral salt. Nigericin has a selectivity K+ > Rb+ > Na+ and ionomycin a selectivity Ca 2+ > Mg2+ > Na + . (c) A23187 and ionomycin A23187 and ionomycin are carboxylic ionophores with a high specificity for divalent rather than monovalent cations (Fig. 3). A23187 catalyses the electroneutral exchange of Ca 2 + or Mg 2 + for 2H + without disturbing monovalent ion gradients.