Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists by John Daintith

By John Daintith

New version of a extremely popular Reference because the first absolutely up to date model in nearly a decade, this complete compendium brings jointly 2400 scientists who've made very important contributions to the large global of technology. instead of a Who’s-Who type laundry record, this simple source presents crucial biographical details and specializes in clinical fulfillment. certainly, it really is as a lot a booklet approximately technology because it is ready the amazing scientists who include the sphere. Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists, 3rd variation concentrates at the 'traditional natural’ sciences of physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, and the earth sciences. It additionally covers drugs and arithmetic and encompasses a number of those who have made very important contributions to engineering, expertise, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy. together with 29 illustrations of key clinical suggestions and discoveries, this definitive assortment additionally includes priceless assets equivalent to a pronunciation consultant, pass references, quotations, an issue index, timeline of key medical occasions, and record of priceless web pages. includes extra Biographies than different Comparably Sized Titles Written via a well-known authority within the box, the simple prose eases readers into subtle options, like summary arithmetic and smooth theoretical physics. The publication highlights all Nobel Prize winners and renowned scientists akin to Keith Campbell, Ian Wilmut, and John Nash. Compiled in A-Z sort, this paintings is the authoritative quantity of its style with greater than 2 hundred new entries in its most recent version.

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FRESNEL’s wave theory of light against the criticisms of LAPLACE and Biot, who both supported the corpuscular theory. In 1838 he described an experiment to decide the issue by comparing the speed of light in air with that in a denser medium. Shortly before Arago’s death, Léon FOUCAULT and Armand FIZEAU proved that the experiment supported the wave theory. Arago also worked on electromagnetism, showing that a coil of wire carrying a current could act as a magnet. He also found that a rotating copper disk could deflect a magnetic needle suspended above it.

He also argued against the doctrine of pangenesis, that the seed comes from the whole of the body, as he also did against the classical version of preformationism, that the embryo contains all parts already preformed. His physiology, which could not be obtained so readily from simple dissection, was less acute. Respiration was thought to cool the body, an exercise unnecessary for fish who could cool themselves merely by drawing water through their gills. He, further, produced a rudimentary taxonomy that went to some length to show that divisions based on number of limbs turned out to be obviously arbitrary.

B. J. FOURIER as the permanent secretary of the Ecole Polytechnique. Arago worked in a number of branches of physics. His first investigations concerned the polarization of light and in 1811 he discovered chromatic polarization. He was a vigorous defender of A. J. FRESNEL’s wave theory of light against the criticisms of LAPLACE and Biot, who both supported the corpuscular theory. In 1838 he described an experiment to decide the issue by comparing the speed of light in air with that in a denser medium.

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