Bioinorganic Chemistry II by Raymond K.N. (ed.)

By Raymond K.N. (ed.)

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A s u bstance disso lved i n wate r is an (5) solutio n . Air is a (6) solution cons isting of m a i n ly oxyg e n and n itr oge n molecu les . We l ive i n a world of pred o m i nately mixtu res . Air, the ocea n s , soi l , rocks , and l iving things a l l cons ist of ______ (7) m ixed together. answers : 1 -e , 2-c , 3-d , 4-g , 5-a , 6- b, 7-f . 3 2 The Components of Matter T H E ATO M I C VI EW O F MATTER and DALTO N ' S ATO M I C TH EORY Eviden ce for Atoms ( Dalto n 's I n d u ction) Expe rimental resu l ts o n the m asses of compo u n d s and chem ical reactio n s by early scie ntists led to the laws of M ass Conservatio n and Constant Composition which i n turn led J o h n Dalto n ( 1 766- 1 844) to postu late the existe nce of ato m s .

Ato mic masses are g iven in atomic mass u n its (am u ) arb itrari ly defined as exactly 1 /1 2 the weight of a 1 2 C ato m : mass o f o n e 1 2 C ato m = 1 2 . 000 a m u , b u t 1 2 . 0 1 1 amu because it is a m ixtu re of the isotopes 1 2 C and 1 3 C . 003 . T h e average m ass of these isotopes (weig hted fo r abunda nce) g ives the atomic mass of naturally occu rring carbon ( 1 2 . 0 1 1 a m u ) . No s i ngle carbon ato m has a n ato m i c mass of 1 2 . 0 1 1 , however for stoich iometric pu rposes, we consider carbon to be co m posed of only one type of atom with a mass of 1 2 .

N H 4 H S 0 4 : both the cation N H 4 + and the anion HS0 4- contain covalent bo nds, and together fo rm an ionic bond 44 Chapter 2 The Components of Matter N H 3 : covalent bo nds 2 . 1 3) S u m the ato m i c masses to obtain the molecu lar mass : H N 03 1 . 45) (4 (8 x x 1 6 . 02 amu 1 53 . 008) 1 . 00) = 60 . 0 5 amu 92. 1 4 1 amu The u n its of these molecular masses are amu (dalton) for the mass of an i n d ivid u a l molec u l e , or g rams for the mass of one mole of the molecules. 2 . 1 4) 8 .

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