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Type A CBMs, or ‘‘surface-binding’’ CBMs, comprise a planar hydrophobic surface, which binds speciﬁcally to insoluble crystalline cellulose. Type B CBMs, or ‘‘glycan-chainbinding’’ CBMs, bind to single-chain polysaccharides. 9,16 To make CBMs visible under ﬂuorescence microscopy, ﬂuorescent tags need to be incorporated into them. 13,14,17 NAC/histidine-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs have been bound to a CBM (AcCBM2 or CtCBM3) fusion protein with dual hexahistidine-tags at its N- and C- termini. 13,14 Three diﬀerent types CBM (CtCBM3, CtCBM6, SlCBM20) each exhibiting diﬀerent carbohydrate speciﬁcities were each fused with either green ﬂuorescent protein (GFP) or red ﬂuorescent protein (RFP) and employed for dual-labeling ﬂuorescence microscopy studies of primary cell walls and various carbohydrate target molecules.
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