Biomass Conversion: Methods and Protocols by Michael E. Himmel

By Michael E. Himmel

Biomass conversion study is a mix of easy technological know-how, utilized technology, and engineering trying out and research. Conversion technology comprises the preliminary remedy (called pre-treatment) of the feedstock to render it extra amenable to enzyme motion, enzymatic saccharification, and eventually product formation through microbiological or chemical strategies. In Biomass Conversion: equipment and Protocols, expert researchers within the box element tools that are now commonplace to review biomass conversion. those equipment contain Biomass Feedstocks and Cellulose, Plant cellphone Wall Degrading Enzymes and Microorganisms, and Lignins and Hemicelluloses. Written within the hugely profitable Methods in Molecular Biology™ sequence layout, the chapters comprise the type of distinct description and implementation recommendation that's the most important for purchasing educated, reproducible leads to the laboratory.

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This information is then used to refine biomass pretreatment strategies that optimize the susceptibility of the biomass to subsequent enzymatic digestion or thermochemical depolymerization. As an example, high-resolution microscopic analysis has been effectively used by NREL and other groups in recent studies to reveal the impact of hot water pretreatment (1), dilute acid pretreatment (2, 3), treatment in ionic liquids (4), and AFEX pretreatment on cell wall ultrastructure (5). Many of the challenges that are encountered in detailed biomass characterization arise from the fact that plants are macroscopic organisms that exhibit multi-scale complexity.

3. There are many different types of probes commercially available for tapping mode AFM. Usually it is recommended to use more soft and low force tip for imaging in aqueous conditions. 4. We found that application of a 150-μL liquid droplet (water or buffer) provided the sample with an aqueous environment that was sufficient for imaging for at least 10 h without significant artifacts caused by water evaporation (7). Acknowledgments This work was supported by the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), which is a US Department of Energy Bioenergy Research Center supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

23. Transfer and orient samples into capsules or molds for polymerization. See Note 4 for sample labeling and capsule/mold selection. 24. Polymerize resin for 48 h in a vacuum oven at 70°C (for EMbed 812) or 60°C (for LR White). 25. LR White polymerizes best if the oven is purged with nitrogen. 26. Remove embedded samples from capsules or molds for sectioning. S. Donohoe et al. 2. Fixation and Embedding by High-Pressure Freezing and Freeze Substitution 1. This protocol for high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution is based on those developed and used by Mary Morphew, Tom Giddings, and Byung-Ho Kang, at the University of Colorado at Boulder and others (10–13).

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