By Dmitry Murzin, Olga Simakova (eds.)
Biomass-derived sugars supply a wealthy, renewable feedstock for a various diversity of chemical substances, making them a promising and possible resource for the sustainable manufacture of various beneficial items. Exploring eco-friendly sugar-based applied sciences past their purposes in fuels, this ebook presents an outline of sugar-based applied sciences, describing their demanding situations and possibilities. It covers modifications of sugars into eco-friendly chemical compounds in prescription drugs, biodegradable polymers and surfactants. a distinct bankruptcy is devoted to the conversion of biomass into sugars, that's an important step within the sustainable usage of sugars. The e-book is a important source for chemists and chemical engineers operating to advance greener man made routes to chemical substances and prescription drugs
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Additional info for Biomass Sugars for Non-Fuel Applications
127,128 In the early 1990s, siliceous mesoporous silicas such as FSM-16 (Folded Sheet Mesoporous/Material), SBA-15 (Santa Barbara Amorphous) and MCM-41 (Mobil Corporation/Composite Mesoporous/Material) with large pore openings (42 nm) were invented. 129–131 Though these materials had a 1D channel structure, subsequent developments in the synthesis of many other mesoporous materials with 2D and 3D channel structures have been successful. , acid sites can be generated Conversion of Biomass into Sugars 27 on these materials.
10 Chapter 1 Possible pathway for the formation of H3O1 in bulk water to catalyse the hydrolysis of saccharides. 139,140 The acidity can be incorporated in these materials by washing the carbon with H2SO4 or grafting sulfonic acid groups on its surface. Additionally, activated carbons may have –OH and –CO2H groups on their surface, which can give rise to weak acidity. 125 During cellobiose hydrolysis, it was suggested that the ÀOH groups present on the carbon surface form strong H-bonds with cellobiose glycosidic oxygen, allowing it to adsorb on the carbon surface.
Abengoa has also shown a possibility for the production of ethanol from corn Stover via sugar formation. In 2013, Raı´zen Energia SA of Brazil (joint venture of Shell and Cosan) announced the production of bio-ethanol via sugar formation using an enzymatic process. 70 This has definitely improved the economics of the enzymatic hydrolysis process and hence, after 2004, several facilities started using enzymatic routes for the conversion of lignocelluloses into sugars and further into ethanol. 101 Due to the specific role of each enzyme, for example while endoglucanase cleaves the internal bonds of cellulose, the exoglucanase and b-D-glucosidase give complete conversion of cellulose into sugars, a mixture of these enzymes is required (endoglucanases and exoglucanases for the hydrolysis of cellulose into cellobiose and b-1,4-glucosidases for the conversion of cellobiose to glucose).