Biomechanics and Sports: Proceedings of the XI Winter by Paolo B. Pascolo

By Paolo B. Pascolo

On XXI wintry weather Universiads 2003, CISM provided its clinical contribution by way of internet hosting a convention on mechanics utilized to activities and, as a rule, to human move. The convention was once conceived as an opportunity to review reviews received from numerous operators engaged on varied points of biomechanics. The reader will face in those lawsuits bioengineering elements, regulate concerns, strategies for the optimization of human performances in addition to equipment for the advance of athletic equipments and units. Biomechanical facts and sign processing, biomaterials and robotics whole the proposed framework. a few works have been in line with the truth that 2003 used to be specified as eu yr of Disabled humans. certainly, many inventions in recreation and biomechanics may recommend fascinating rehabilitative purposes and a greater prevention of a few pathologies as a result of workout of a few common actions like expert biking. Ž

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3 A rheologic model of the human muscle When a muscle is activated, its contractile kernel can be identified with the chemicallinks between the myosin and actin mulecules. an their own, these mulecules compose a sequence of filaments (connected in series) embedded in a matrix made of connective tissues (connected in paraUel to A Mechanical Model of the Biceps Brachii Muscle 45 the filaments). Furthermore, part ofthe latter tissues, mainly the tendons, are connected in series to the muscular fibers.

In a similar way, for the series element Se the following constitutive law was used: PSe = Pso ( e KSe ALSe - 1) (2) The force P Ce exercised by the contractile element Ce depends on the number of the activated chemicallinks, the distance between the myosin and actin filaments and the time elapsed from the beginning of the contraction. About these items, this work was inspired by the theory of the sliding filaments proposed by Huxley [2]. According to this theory, once defined the fraction n of the active links with respect to all those ones activables, the growth of the active links can be described by means ofthe following law: an / Ot = ( 1- n )j( u , t) - n g( u , t ) (3) where u is the distance between the myosin mulecule (in resting condition) from its potential target, normalîzed with respect to the maximum distance at which a link is still possible, whilejand g are fuctions that Julian [3] approximated as: j=O j = r( t) f] u j=O g=g2 g=gl U g=g] U if if if u I (4) with fI, g] and g2 parameters (f] and gl depends on the preload length) while ris the so called activationjactor.

FinalIy, the models here in proposed were compared, satisfactorily, ta other numeric represenntions generated by means of Virtual Muscle, a third party application [7] based an assumptions similar to those ones presented in this paper, 5 Numerical simulations on the biceps brachii The simulations run in this study focused an the biceps brachii because of its simplicity and high representativity among the skeletal muscles. Furthermare, the model was parametrized with refffence ta an healty and trained subject.

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