By Eric S. Lander, Michael S. Waterman
During this first-ever survey of the partnership among arithmetic and biology, major specialists examine how mathematical examine and techniques have made attainable very important discoveries in biology. Explores how differential geometry, topology, and differential mechanics have allowed researchers to "wind" and "unwind" DNA's double helix to appreciate the phenomenon of supercoiling. Explains how mathematical instruments are revealing the workings of enzymes and proteins. Describes how mathematicians are detecting echoes from the foundation of lifestyles by way of employing the stochastic and statictical concept to the examine of DNA sequences.
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Interactions with specific proteins which are designed to fit into the grooves are very important for regulating the expression of genes. 3 The Structures of the Components of DNA Because DNA is such a large complicated molecule, it is difficult to see how it is built up and how the component parts interact. To make it easier, we will look at the molecule a bit at a time, starting with the nucleotide and working up. 9 were all produced by extracting the features of interest from the structure of the 12mer CGTGAATTCACG.
It is worth emphasizing that there is a bit of sloppiness in the terminology. Structure 37 is really a trideoxyribonucleotide. It is common practice, however, to use the short form trinucleotide provided that the context is clear; that is, when we know that we are talking about DNA rather than RNA. Similarly, the abbreviated structure should properly be written dAdTdG, but the “d”s are implied if the context is DNA. In the chapters that follow, the short terms nucleoside and nucleotide will be used unless it is necessary, for some reason, to be more specific.
For example, the total genome of the mouse contains about 2,500,000,000 nucleotides divided up between 20 chromosomes. So on average, each chromosome contains 125,000,000residues. In fact, the sizes of the DNA molecules in the mouse genome vary between 58,000,000 and 192,000,000 residues. 8. 1 The Structure in Outline On 25 April 1953, a single-page paper appeared in Nature' which revolutionized the understanding of DNA and which won its authors, James Watson and Francis Crick, a Nobel Prize. 1).